Actual issues of Ukrainian linguistics: theory and practice (2016). Volume 33. P. 17-31.






Abstract. The author offered an attempt of research of duma’s formulas not in the pattern of formulaic "grammar" in Parry-Lord theory, but investigated immanently, as the lingua-stylistic phenomena. We differentiate an epic formula (M. Parry) and "formulaic expression" (A.B. Lord), but the last is examined as the repeated combination of words, which inherits from an epic formula. For an analysis we elected a formula "prayer of slaves about returning in a fatherland" and "formulaic expressions", which came genetically from this formula. There were investigated records of 43 variants of formula and 9 related to it "formulaic expressions" in 50 dumas, that were writen by 23 collectors (yet in 4 records collectors are unknown) from 22 kobza-players and lira-players, names identified, and 6 anonyms. As known, an epic singer acts at the same time both as a folklore creator, "author" of certain variant of epic work, and as a certain translator of an epic tradition. We will consider the variants of selected formula for kobza-players and lira-players in first place, and then will make attempt to give it a statistically generalized look, as on the certain phenomenon, thought to be impersonal epic tradition, analysed on linguastylistic levels. We mark regional origin of formula, which existed, above all things, in Poltava region, though some records are done in Kharkiv and Sumy regions. It, with some exceptions, attached to the thematic cycle of "slave" dumas ("Weeping of slaves", "Weeping of slave", "Marusia Boguslavka", "Ivan Boguslavec", "Samiilo Kishka"), outside which it, in a brief form, is used in the variants of dumas "Storm at the Black seaside" and "Oleksij Popovich", where death substitutes the Turkish captivity at-sea, or every misfortune, which expects a man.  In the unique record of duma "Three Samara Brothers", where this formula is used, the pertinent fragment tells about a danger to get into the captivity for "Turks and yanichars". The formula was used by a kobzaplayer                     M. Kravchenko in the author's composition about the events of 1905 revolution. Formula expressions, that stem from the components of the considered formula, are also used only in the circle of the indicated duma’s subjects. The single cases of creative interpretation of verbal clothes of formula of M. Bondarenko and K. Lazarenko only underline stereotypical and traditional use of duma’s formula by majority of kobza-players and lira-players. A free verse of duma is niether hexameter nor desyaterac, where the liberty of it's verse line is forming.  In the second part of work we will appeal to the statistical working on found variants of the formula "prayer of a slaves about returning into a fatherland" and formulaic expressions which originate from it.


Key words: duma, epic formula, formula expression, variant, kobzaplayer, lira-player, verse line.


Information about author: Rosovetsky Stanislav Kazimirovich – doctor of philology, professor; professor of the department of folklore studies; Institute of philology; Kyiv national Taras Shevchenko university.